TheBadshahi Mosque(King's mosque) was built by the Mughal emperor aAurangzeb in Lahore,PakistanA major Mughal contribution to theIndian Subcontinentwas their uniquearchitecture. Many great monuments were built by the Muslim emperors during the Mughal era including theTajMahal. The Muslim Mughal Dynasty built splendid palaces, tombs, minars and forts that standtoday inDelhi,Dhaka,Agra,Jaipur, Lahore, Sheikhupuraand many other cities of India, PakistanandBangladesh.
Hindustanis a place of little charm. There is no beauty in its people, no graceful socialintercourse, no poetic talent or understanding, no etiquette, nobility or manliness. Thearts and crafts have no harmony or symmetry. There are no good horses, meat, grapes,melons or other fruit. There is no ice, cold water, good food or bread in the markets.There are no baths and nomadrasas. There are no candles, torches or candlesticks".
Fortunately his successors, with fewer memories of the Central Asian homeland he pined for,took a less prejudiced view of cultures of theSubcontinent, and became more or less naturalised,absorbing many subcontinental traits and customs along the way. The Mughal period would see amore fruitful blending of Indian, Iranianand Central Asian artistic, intellectual and literary traditions than any other in India's history. The Mughals had a taste for the fine things in life — for beautifully designed artifacts and the enjoyment and appreciation of cultural activities. TheMughals borrowed as much as they gave; both theHinduandMuslimtraditions of theIndian Subcontinentwere huge influences on their interpretation of culture and court style. Nevertheless, they introduced many notable changes to societies of the subcontinent and culture,including:
Centralised government which brought together many smaller kingdoms
Persian art and culture amalgamated with native Indian art and culture
TheUrdulanguage is aHindidialect with the addition of borrowings fromPersian, ArabicandTurkish.Urdudeveloped as a result of the fusion of theIndianandIslamic cultures during the Mughal period. ModernHindiis no longer traditionalHindibut a blend of SanskritandPrakritgrammar and vocabulary along with loan words from Persian, Arabic and Turkish which ismutually intelligiblewith and identical toUrdu. This is best exemplified by the language used inBollywoodfilms and in the major urbansettings of theIndian Subcontinent.
A new style of architecture
Landscape gardeningThe remarkable flowering of art and architecture under the Mughals is due to several factors. Theempire itself provided a secure framework within which artistic genius could flourish, and itcommanded wealth and resources unparalleled in the history of theSubcontinent. The Mughalrulers themselves were extraordinary patrons of art, whose intellectual caliber and culturaloutlook was expressed in the most refined taste.
The alternate spelling of the empire,
, is the source of the modern word
.In popular news jargon, this word denotes a successful businessmagnatewho has built for himself a vast (and oftenmonopolistic
) empire in one or more specific industries. Theusage is a reference to the expansive and wealthy empire built by the Mughal kings.Rupert Murdoch, for example, is a called anews mogul.
John F Richards,The Mughal Empire ,Vol I.5 of the New Cambridge History of India,Cambridge University Press, 1996
Bhawan Singh Rana, 'Maharana Partap' pp.19ISBN 8128808257
"Bringing Order to Linguistic Diversity: Language Planning in the British Raj". Language inIndia. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
"A Brief Hindi - Urdu FAQ". sikmirza. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
"Urdu". Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
Irfan Habib, The Agrarian System of Mughal India (Revised edition, Oxford University PressIndia, 2001) 317–51.
M. Athar Ali, The Mughal nobility under Aurangzeb. Revised ed. (Delhi: Oxford UniversityPress. 1997) 11.
For details, please see G.E.Hervey, The fate of Shah Shuja 1661. Journal of the BurmaResearch Society, part 1, 1922. pp. 107-115.
M. Siddique Khan, op, cit., p. 253.
G. E Hervey, History of Burma, London 1925, P. 148. Mohammad Khalilur Rahman, Tarik-i-Islam Arakan & Burma, Urdu version, Quoted by Abdul Haque Chowdhury.
The Crescent in Arakan. Moshe Yegar of Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Muslim Settlement inArakan.
Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John.The History of India, as Told by Its OwnHistorians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867– 1877. (Online Copy:The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. TheMuhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877- This online Copy has been posted by:The Packard HumanitiesInstitute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List andTitle List
Preston, Diana and Michael; Taj Mahal: Passion and Genius at the Heart of the MoghulEmpire; Walker & Company; ISBN-10: 0802716733.